TBOOX

Add the Stackless Coroutines for tbox

2016-12-03

tbox provides a lightweight implementation of stackless coroutines

and it’s interfaces are very simple too, for example:

tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
{
    while (1)
    {
        tb_lo_coroutine_yield();
    }
}

The switch performance of this stackless coroutines is faster than the implementation of tbox’s stackfull coroutines.

And the memory storage space of each coroutine is also reduced to only a few bytes, but it also has many limitations:

1. With a stackless coroutine, only the top-level routine may be suspended. 
Any routine called by that top-level routine may not itself suspend. 
This prohibits providing suspend/resume operations in routines within a general-purpose library.

2. Because stackless coroutines do not save the stack context across a blocking call, local variables are not preserved when the protothread blocks.
This means that local variables should be used with utmost care - if in doubt, do not use local variables inside a stackless coroutine!

Now let’s look at how to use the stackless coroutine of tbox.

Switch

static tb_void_t switchtask(tb_lo_coroutine_ref_t coroutine, tb_cpointer_t priv)
{
    // check
    tb_size_t* count = (tb_size_t*)priv;

    // enter coroutine
    tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
    {
        // loop
        while ((*count)--)
        {
            // trace
            tb_trace_i("[coroutine: %p]: %lu", tb_lo_coroutine_self(), *count);

            // yield
            tb_lo_coroutine_yield();
        }
    }
}
static tb_void_t test()
{
    // init scheduler
    tb_lo_scheduler_ref_t scheduler = tb_lo_scheduler_init();
    if (scheduler)
    {
        // start coroutines
        tb_size_t counts[] = {10, 10};
        tb_lo_coroutine_start(scheduler, switchtask, &counts[0], tb_null);
        tb_lo_coroutine_start(scheduler, switchtask, &counts[1], tb_null);

        // run scheduler
        tb_lo_scheduler_loop(scheduler, tb_true);

        // exit scheduler
        tb_lo_scheduler_exit(scheduler);
    }
}

Passing arguments

You can pass the user private data and the custom free function before starting a new coroutine.

typedef struct __tb_xxxx_priv_t
{
    tb_size_t   member;
    tb_size_t   others;

}tb_xxxx_priv_t;

static tb_void_t tb_xxx_free(tb_cpointer_t priv)
{
    if (priv) tb_free(priv);
}
 
static tb_void_t test()
{
    tb_xxxx_priv_t* priv = tb_malloc0_type(tb_xxxx_priv_t);
    if (priv)
    {
        priv->member = value;
    }

    tb_lo_coroutine_start(scheduler, switchtask, priv, tb_xxx_free);
}

But this is very complicated to write, so we can use tb_lo_coroutine_pass1 to simplify it:

 
typedef struct __tb_xxxx_priv_t
{
    tb_size_t   member;
    tb_size_t   others;

}tb_xxxx_priv_t;

static tb_void_t test()
{
    // start coroutine 
    tb_lo_coroutine_start(scheduler, switchtask, tb_lo_coroutine_pass1(tb_xxxx_priv_t, member, value));
}

This is functionally equivalent to the previous code.

Suspend and resume

The usage of the two interfaces is same with tbox’s stackfull coroutine:

tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
{
    // suspend coroutine
    tb_lo_coroutine_suspend();
}

// resume the given coroutine
tb_lo_coroutine_resume(coroutine);

The difference between suspend()/resume() and yield() is that the coroutine after yield is then switched back, but the suspended coroutine will never be executed until resumed by calling resume().

Sleep

We can simply use sleep() to wait some time:

tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
{
    // wait 1s
    tb_lo_coroutine_sleep(1000);
}

Wait io

We can use tb_lo_coroutine_waitio to wait socket io events synchronously:

static tb_void_t tb_demo_lo_coroutine_client(tb_lo_coroutine_ref_t coroutine, tb_cpointer_t priv)
{
    // check
    tb_demo_lo_client_ref_t client = (tb_demo_lo_client_ref_t)priv;
    tb_assert(client);

    // enter coroutine
    tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
    {
        // read data
        client->size = sizeof(client->data) - 1;
        while (client->read < client->size)
        {
            // read it
            client->real = tb_socket_recv(client->sock, (tb_byte_t*)client->data + client->read, client->size - client->read);

            // has data?
            if (client->real > 0) 
            {
                client->read += client->real;
                client->wait = 0;
            }
            // no data? wait it
            else if (!client->real && !client->wait)
            {
                // wait socket receiving events
                tb_lo_coroutine_waitio(client->sock, TB_SOCKET_EVENT_RECV, TB_DEMO_TIMEOUT);

                // get waited events
                client->wait = tb_lo_coroutine_events();
                tb_assert_and_check_break(client->wait >= 0);
            }
            // failed or end?
            else break;
        }

        // trace
        tb_trace_i("echo: %s", client->data);

        // exit socket
        tb_socket_exit(client->sock);
    }
}

The scheduler of stackless coroutines will use a io poller (epoll, kqueue, poll ..) to schedule these waiting socket.

If you want to know more usage of the interfaces, please refer to the http server example based on stackless coroutine.

Or more examples source codes.

Semaphone and lock


// the lock
static tb_lo_lock_t     g_lock;

// enter coroutine
tb_lo_coroutine_enter(coroutine)
{
    // loop
    while (lock->count--)
    {
        // enter lock
        tb_lo_lock_enter(&g_lock);

        // trace
        tb_trace_i("[coroutine: %p]: enter", tb_lo_coroutine_self());

        // wait some time
        tb_lo_coroutine_sleep(1000);

        // trace
        tb_trace_i("[coroutine: %p]: leave", tb_lo_coroutine_self());

        // leave lock
        tb_lo_lock_leave(&g_lock);
    }
}
 
// init lock     
tb_lo_lock_init(&g_lock);

// start coroutine 
// ..

// exit lock
tb_lo_lock_exit(&g_lock);

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